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depended on single substitutions within amino acids 867–876 in non-structural protein, NS2.
The identified A876P-substitution resulted in a 4.7-fold increase in genomic stability.
Culturing and infections of cells with HCV were done as described.16 Infected cultures were evaluated every second day by NS5A-specific immunostaining.
These in vivo derived, fully adapted and physiochemically similar viruses with and without HVR1 were used to address whether HVR1 protects HCV against cross-genotype reactive n Abs in vivo.
Huh7.5 human hepatoma cells and Huh7-derived S29 cells26 (with low CD81 expression conferring non-susceptibility to HCV) were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics.
Mouse liver repopulation by human hepatocytes was confirmed 2–3 days pre-inoculation by measuring human albumin plasma levels.
Human polyclonal Ig G levels in the animals were measured by an in-house ELISA as described.29 Sequencing the HCV ORF of viruses recovered from plasma or serum was performed as above, except that random hexamers were used in reverse transcription with Superscript II (Invitrogen).
Direct HCV open reading frame (ORF) sequencing of viruses recovered from culture supernatants was done by RT-nested PCR procedures.16Animal studies using human liver chimeric mice engrafted with human hepatocytes were performed at Ghent University, with protocols approved by the local Animal Ethics Committee.